ePortfolios Explained: Theory and Practice
Glasser suggests that almost all behavior is chosen, and we are driven by genetics to satisfy five basic needs: survival, love and belonging, power, freedom and fun. In choice theory, the most important need is love and belonging because connectedness with others is required as a basis in satisfying all other needs. The classroom should therefore be a needs-satisfying place for students. It has been utilized in schools across the globe and has changed the ways that teachers deliver instruction.
First, Glasser identifies teachers as managers who need to work effectively if they want to successfully teach their students. The role of teachers as managers requires them to guide students in understanding that working hard and being obedient is worth it and will have a positive influence on their lives. Teachers can achieve this through developing positive relationships with students and creating active, relevant learning experiences that enable students to demonstrate mastery and success. This allows learning to increase while diminishing disruption.
There are three common characteristics of classrooms and schools that apply choice theory:. Kohn maintains that societies based on extrinsic motivation always become inefficient over time. He questions the hierarchical structures at work in mainstream education.
He argues that positive enforcement only encourages students to seek out more positive enforcement, rather than truly learn. Because of this, he argues that standards should be kept very minimal and is critical of standardized testing. Kohn also argues that a strict curriculum and homework are counterintuitive to student needs. When it comes to classroom management, Kohn believes that most teachers rely too heavily on extrinsic motivation rather than more intrinsic factors.
In general, Kohn believes that there is too much emphasis on achievement rather than the learning process.
He emphasizes that not all students learn at the same pace, and standards do not take this into account. In general, Kohn believes in classrooms where the student is at the center of everything.
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Ideally, such a classroom would feature:. When educators are able to focus on classroom organization as a means of behavior management, they achieve better results for students. Cooper, Orwell, and Bowden developed the outer nodes on this Dimensions of WIL wheel see above , highlighting dimensions that help with the planning and success of WIL. Researchers have identified several theories of student learning that help explain the benefit of WIL and that also provide a framework for assessing its learning outcomes.
Summarized by Sattler and Keating , these include situated learning theory, action theory and boundary crossing, pedagogy of the workplace, and critical education theory. First, reflection is often used as a tool for students to process learning; while students can use different modes for reflection, reflective writing is one important mode see Edgar, Francis-Coad, and Connaughton , who examine whether reflective writing is relevant for professional practice.
In addition, writing is identified as a key competency in studies of employer expectations e. Kolb's experiential learning style theory is typically represented by a four-stage learning cycle in which the learner 'touches all the bases':. Concrete Experience - a new experience or situation is encountered, or a reinterpretation of existing experience.
Cognitive Approach to Learning
Reflective Observation of the New Experience - of particular importance are any inconsistencies between experience and understanding. Abstract Conceptualization reflection gives rise to a new idea, or a modification of an existing abstract concept the person has learned from their experience. Active Experimentation - the learner applies their idea s to the world around them to see what happens. Effective learning is seen when a person progresses through a cycle of four stages: of 1 having a concrete experience followed by 2 observation of and reflection on that experience which leads to 3 the formation of abstract concepts analysis and generalizations conclusions which are then 4 used to test hypothesis in future situations, resulting in new experiences.
Kolb views learning as an integrated process with each stage being mutually supportive of and feeding into the next.
It is possible to enter the cycle at any stage and follow it through its logical sequence. However, effective learning only occurs when a learner can execute all four stages of the model. Therefore, no one stage of the cycle is effective as a learning procedure on its own. Kolb's learning theory sets out four distinct learning styles, which are based on a four-stage learning cycle see above. Kolb explains that different people naturally prefer a certain single different learning style. Various factors influence a person's preferred style. For example, social environment, educational experiences, or the basic cognitive structure of the individual.
Kolb's Learning Styles and Experiential Learning Cycle | Simply Psychology
Whatever influences the choice of style, the learning style preference itself is actually the product of two pairs of variables, or two separate 'choices' that we make, which Kolb presented as lines of an axis, each with 'conflicting' modes at either end. A typical presentation of Kolb's two continuums is that the east-west axis is called the Processing Continuum how we approach a task , and the north-south axis is called the Perception Continuum our emotional response, or how we think or feel about it. Kolb believed that we cannot perform both variables on a single axis at the same time e.
Our learning style is a product of these two choice decisions. It's often easier to see the construction of Kolb's learning styles in terms of a two-by-two matrix.
Each learning style represents a combination of two preferred styles. The matrix also highlights Kolb's terminology for the four learning styles; diverging, assimilating, and converging, accommodating:. Knowing a person's and your own learning style enables learning to be orientated according to the preferred method. That said, everyone responds to and needs the stimulus of all types of learning styles to one extent or another - it's a matter of using emphasis that fits best with the given situation and a person's learning style preferences.
These people are able to look at things from different perspectives.
They are sensitive.