Star Formation Stars are born within the clouds of dust and scattered throughout most galaxies. Black Holes. The Big Bang. Helpful Links Organization and Staff. Astrophysics Fleet Mission Chart.
Spacecraft Paper Models. Related Content Mysteries of the Sun. Death of Stars video. Life Cycles of Stars.
More About Stars. Stellar Evolution. Recommended Articles. Hubble Solves Cosmic 'Whodunit March 22, November 01, October 18, March 02, Ask a Question. Average Stars Become White Dwarfs For average stars like the Sun, the process of ejecting its outer layers continues until the stellar core is exposed. This dead, but still ferociously hot stellar cinder is called a White Dwarf. White dwarfs, which are roughly the size of our Earth despite containing the mass of a star, once puzzled astronomers - why didn't they collapse further? What force supported the mass of the core?
Quantum mechanics provided the explanation. Pressure from fast moving electrons keeps these stars from collapsing. The more massive the core, the denser the white dwarf that is formed. Thus, the smaller a white dwarf is in diameter, the larger it is in mass!
These paradoxical stars are very common - our own Sun will be a white dwarf billions of years from now. White dwarfs are intrinsically very faint because they are so small and, lacking a source of energy production, they fade into oblivion as they gradually cool down. This fate awaits only those stars with a mass up to about 1. Above that mass, electron pressure cannot support the core against further collapse. Such stars suffer a different fate as described below.
White Dwarfs May Become Novae If a white dwarf forms in a binary or multiple star system, it may experience a more eventful demise as a nova. Nova is Latin for "new" - novae were once thought to be new stars. Today, we understand that they are in fact, very old stars - white dwarfs. If a white dwarf is close enough to a companion star, its gravity may drag matter - mostly hydrogen - from the outer layers of that star onto itself, building up its surface layer.
When enough hydrogen has accumulated on the surface, a burst of nuclear fusion occurs, causing the white dwarf to brighten substantially and expel the remaining material. Within a few days, the glow subsides and the cycle starts again. Sometimes, particularly massive white dwarfs those near the 1.
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Supernovae Leave Behind Neutron Stars or Black Holes Main sequence stars over eight solar masses are destined to die in a titanic explosion called a supernova. A supernova is not merely a bigger nova. In a nova, only the star's surface explodes. In a supernova, the star's core collapses and then explodes. In massive stars, a complex series of nuclear reactions leads to the production of iron in the core.
Having achieved iron, the star has wrung all the energy it can out of nuclear fusion - fusion reactions that form elements heavier than iron actually consume energy rather than produce it. The star no longer has any way to support its own mass, and the iron core collapses. In just a matter of seconds the core shrinks from roughly miles across to just a dozen, and the temperature spikes billion degrees or more. The outer layers of the star initially begin to collapse along with the core, but rebound with the enormous release of energy and are thrown violently outward.
Supernovae release an almost unimaginable amount of energy. For a period of days to weeks, a supernova may outshine an entire galaxy. Likewise, all the naturally occurring elements and a rich array of subatomic particles are produced in these explosions. On average, a supernova explosion occurs about once every hundred years in the typical galaxy. About 25 to 50 supernovae are discovered each year in other galaxies, but most are too far away to be seen without a telescope. Modern Design; The Milky Way. The Cambridge Encylopedia of Stars , with over illustrations, is a unique book that provides a comprehensive description of stars and their natures.
Detailed cross referencing enables the reader to explore topics in depth, making an invaluable work both for beginners and for those with a more advanced interest in stars and stellar evolution. Stars and Constellations; 2. Location; 3. Magnitudes; 4. Distances; 5.
The Galaxy in Motion; 6. Spectra and the HR Diagram; 7.
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Stellar Properties; 8. Double and Multiple Stars; 9. Star Clusters and Associations; Variable Stars; Star Formation; Sun and Main Sequence; Stellar Evolution; High Mass Evolution. Astronomy: Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe from Recorded Books' "Modern Scholar" series , winner of Audiofile magazine's Earphones Award , is an accessible astronomy course given as a set of 14 lectures on audio CD that describes the exciting tale of space and time beyond the Solar System, in which we begin with the Sun and launch ourselves into the depths of the Universe.
The audio disks come with a complete page book in full color that summarizes the lectures. The Neighborhood; 2. The Central Sun; 3. The Making of Sunlight; 4. Billions of Stars; 5. Ganging Up; 6. Between the Stars; 7. Star Birth; 8. Stellar Fate; 9. Catastrophe; Neutron Stars and Black Holes; The Galaxy; Galaxies; The Expanding Universe; Cosmic Origins in the Big Bang. Barnes and Noble , New York, Vault of the Heavens: Exploring the Solar system's Place in the Universe part of Barnes and Noble's "Portable Professor Series" is an accessible astronomy course given as a set of 14 lectures on audio CD that describes the exciting tale of the Solar System.
We and the Universe; 2. Reflections of the Spinning Earth; 3. Sun and Seasons; 4. Stories in the Sky: Constellations; 5. Romance of the Moon; 6. Happy Wanderers: The Planets; 7. Keeping It All Together; 8. Reaching Outward; 9. Our Domain: Earth and Moon; Iron Planets: Mercury, Venus, and Mars; Monsters of the Midway: Jupiter and Saturn; Distant Outposts: Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto; Leftovers of Creation: Comets, Asteroids, and Meteors; Astronomy: Earth, Sky, and Planets from Recorded Books' "Modern Scholar" series is an accessible astronomy course given as a set of 14 lectures on audio CD that describes the exciting tale of the Solar System.
Copernicus Books , New York, Translated into Dutch. Each is given a quick summary that is accompanied by a one- page description and a full-page illustration. A short introduction to stars is followed by the Hundred without the use of chapters. The star-stories are in turn followed by listings by standard and alternative names, by order of evolution, and by position on the sky.
Observer's Guide to Stellar Evolution - Mike Inglis - Häftad () | Bokus
Extreme Stars: At the Edge of Creation , the American Association of Publishers Outstanding and Scholarly Title in Physics and Astronomy for , is a unique book that describes the lives of stars from a new perspective. It examines their amazing extremes, and results in as refreshing, up-to-date and engaging overview of stellar evolution. The Sun and Stars; 2. The Faintest and Coolest Stars; 3.
Observer’s Guide to Stellar Evolution
The Coolest Stars Continued; 4. The Hottest Stars; 5. The Brightest Stars; 6. The Largest Stars; 7. The Smallest Stars; 8. The Youngest Stars; 9. The Oldest Stars; The Strangest Stars. Translated into Italian and Greek. The Little Book of Stars is an introductory book on stars that shows how modern astronomers have come to understand our stellar companions, the book describing their hidden births and violent deaths, their immense ages, and the near-unbelievable variety of sizes and configurations in which they exist.