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Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Physiological and Ecological Adaptations to Feeding in Vertebrates file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Physiological and Ecological Adaptations to Feeding in Vertebrates book. Happy reading Physiological and Ecological Adaptations to Feeding in Vertebrates Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Physiological and Ecological Adaptations to Feeding in Vertebrates at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Physiological and Ecological Adaptations to Feeding in Vertebrates Pocket Guide.

Mining activity appears on the plant as tunnels, blotches or blisters. Common miners are the larvae of some flies, wasps, moths and sawflies. For example, leaf chewers have mouthparts that allow them to slice through leaves. The most prolific chewers are the beetles and the larvae of moths and butterflies. Other important groups that feed directly on leaves are the grasshoppers, locusts, katydids, sawflies and stick-insects.

Some groups such as leaf-cutter bees, ants, termites and wasps collect leaf fragments to construct their nests or feed their young. For example, some insects have formed alliances with bacteria or fungi that are capable of breaking down complex chemicals, like the Ambrosia Beetles that distribute special fungi that liquefy woody material, which the beetle eats. Plants defend against herbivores using complex chemicals Plants produce many chemicals for defence against herbivores. These include: detoxifying plant defence chemicals.

For example, caterpillars and sawflies that feed on Eucalypts are capable of breaking down some of the chemical defences.


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Many Australian mammals, most notably the Koala, are able to digest eucalypt leaves also. Research has shown that in the initial stages of stress, plants reallocate resources to parts of the plant important for core activities. Nutrients go into root and leaf development and not chemical defences, so that stressed plants have reduced chemical defences and are easier to eat or are more palatable.

Plants change as they grow Plants have different stages of growth. Toggle Caption Galls on eucalypt leaves, formed by insects. Toggle Caption Some sawfly Symphyta larvae can breakdown a plants chemical defence. References Anderson D.

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Below-ground herbivory in natural communities: A review emphasising fossorial animals. The Quarterly Review of Biology , 62 3 : Australian flora and vegetation statistics , Australian National Botanic Gardens. Bezemer T. Interactions between above- and below-ground insect herbivores as mediated by the plant defence system. Oikos , 3 Bonkowski M and Scheu S Biotic interactions in the Rhizosphere: effects on plant growth and herbivore development.

In Weisser W. Insects and ecosystem function. Ecological studies , Vol Chapman S. Insect herbivory increases litter quality and decomposition: an extension of the acceleration hypothesis. Ecology , 84 11 : Cooper P. What physiological processes permit insects to eat Eucalyptus leaves? Austral Ecology, 26 5 pp. Gullan P. The insects: an outline of entomology.

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Introduction

Hartley S. Insect herbivores, nutrient cycling and plant productivity. Ecological studies ,Vol Hochuli M.

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Insect herbivory and ontogeny: how do growth and development influence feeding behaviour, morphology and host use? Austral Ecology, 26 5 : 8. Hunter M. Insect population dynamics meets ecosystem ecology: effects of herbivory on soil nutrient dynamics.

Physiological and Ecological Adaptations to Feeding in Vertebrates

Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 3: Masters G. Belowground Herbivores and Ecosystem Processes.


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Ecological studies, Vol Many herbivores favour young foliage, which has a higher nutrient content than old leaves. Herbivores therefore, return high concentrations of nutrient to the soil as faeces. This results in leaf litter with a higher nutrient value. Increase in the chances of successful seedling growth. Ants for example, may take seeds back to their nests. The soil of ants' nests is generally richer in nutrients and water than surrounding areas and is favourable for seedling growth.

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Improved conditions for plant growth. Herbivores prune plants and allow light to reach the surrounding area. This provides better conditions for seeds that fall from a parent plant.


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Increased plant protection. For example, some plants that have developed relationships with ants that protect their host plant from other herbivores and also control neighbouring plant growth through weeding and pruning. Control of plant populations, especially weed species. In land management any undesired plant is considered a weed, whether it is an exotic or native. Herbivory naturally controls plant numbers and the introduction of herbivores such as insects may be used as effective biological controls.

Increased protection from further herbivory after initial plant damage. Plants that have their leaves or roots attacked release chemicals that attract predators and parasitoids which then control the herbivores. Toggle Caption Mulga ants, Polyrhachis sp. Plants and herbivores have developed strong relationships Plants have many features that animals have needed to overcome in order to use plants as a food source. How do herbivores deal with plant defenses? Complex plant physical structures Plants have many external structures such as leaves, stems, flower parts, roots, fruits and seeds.

These include: Appendages such as claws, spines or suckers that allow them to cling to vertical or inverted surfaces. Wings to reach the top of the highest plants.

Herbivory: eating plants

Modified legs for digging, to access roots. Saw-like e. Complex plant chemical structures Plants use complex compounds such as cellulose and lignin to maintain their physical structure and support. They include: avoiding tough plant tissue by eating plant fluids. For example, sap-sucking bugs have a tube-like mouthpart called a rostrum, which they use to pierce the tough tissue and suck out the internal juices of the plant. Many herbivores feed on nectar and have mouthparts for lapping, sponging or sucking. Nectar feeding specialists include insects such as butterflies, moths, bees, flies, wasps and beetles, and vertebrates such as lorikeets and honey possums.

For example, miners are insect larvae that eat between plant cell layers. A leaf miner may eat the entire leaf, leaving only the outer protective layers and the veins. Mining activity appears on the plant as tunnels, blotches or blisters. Common miners are the larvae of some flies, wasps, moths and sawflies. For example, leaf chewers have mouthparts that allow them to slice through leaves. The most prolific chewers are the beetles and the larvae of moths and butterflies. Other important groups that feed directly on leaves are the grasshoppers, locusts, katydids, sawflies and stick-insects.

Some groups such as leaf-cutter bees, ants, termites and wasps collect leaf fragments to construct their nests or feed their young. For example, some insects have formed alliances with bacteria or fungi that are capable of breaking down complex chemicals, like the Ambrosia Beetles that distribute special fungi that liquefy woody material, which the beetle eats. Plants defend against herbivores using complex chemicals Plants produce many chemicals for defence against herbivores.

These include: detoxifying plant defence chemicals. For example, caterpillars and sawflies that feed on Eucalypts are capable of breaking down some of the chemical defences. Many Australian mammals, most notably the Koala, are able to digest eucalypt leaves also. Research has shown that in the initial stages of stress, plants reallocate resources to parts of the plant important for core activities.

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Nutrients go into root and leaf development and not chemical defences, so that stressed plants have reduced chemical defences and are easier to eat or are more palatable. Plants change as they grow Plants have different stages of growth.

Toggle Caption Galls on eucalypt leaves, formed by insects.