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iycr - Puerto Rico: National Crystallization Competition in High Schools

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Carolina understands. Mike Isley Product Developer. At this point, the sucrose has been concentrated to such a degree that it is considered supersaturated. Supersaturated solutions are unstable, in the sense that any type of agitation, such as stirring or bumping, will trigger sugar crystallization: sucrose molecules will transition out of the molten liquid solution into a crystalline, solid state [2]. Think of sucrose molecules as Legos; crystallization is the process of these molecules locking together into a solid structure.


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  4. It may not seem like it, but crystallization is a big no-no in hard candies. In broad terms, candies are categorized as crystalline or non-crystalline. Crystalline candies, such as fondants, fudges, and marshmallows, are soft, pliable, and creamy thanks to their sucrose crystal structures. Conversely, non-crystalline candies are firmer and include toffees, caramel candies, brittles, and hard candies. Unwanted crystals in these candies create a grainy, even gritty, candy texture.

    Hindering the crystallization process is crucial for making a successful batch of hard candies. This is where corn syrup, another key candy ingredient, plays an important role. Corn syrup consists primarily of starch, which is nothing more than a string of sugar glucose molecules linked together. When heated, the starch breaks apart into its glucose components.

    These glucose molecules are smaller than sucrose and can impair crystallization by coming between the sucrose molecules, ultimately interfering with crystal formation [2]. In some recipes, invert sugar or honey may be added in lieu of corn syrup.

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    Invert sugar and honey are both mixtures of glucose and fructose, which impede sucrose crystallization the same way as corn syrup. During the final stages of candy-making, the sugar solution is poured onto a cooling table. As it cools, it takes on a more solid, plastic-like mass that is still very pliable.

    Flavors and dyes are added at this stage. Sometimes an acid, such as citric acid, is also added. These acids further prevent sucrose crystallization by hydrolyzing sucrose molecules into their basic components: glucose and fructose. The sugary mass is then aerated, often by rolling, pulling, or folding, so that it cools down quickly and becomes more solid.