You may further deposit the accepted manuscript version in any repository, provided it is only made publicly available 12 months after official publication or later and provided acknowledgement is given to the original source of publication and a link is inserted to the published article on Springer's website. The link must be accompanied by the following text: "The final publication is available at link. Instead, I will defend a position expressed by K.
Bhattacharyya and Frank R. I will argue that although traditional authorities may disagree over the form the liberating process takes on the phenomenal level as yogic practice, instruction from a teacher, etc. I will attempt to demonstrate that neither of these accounts is satisfactory. Instead I will defend a different position expressed by K.
Bhattacharya and Frank R. Since the first definition is more common, I will be using it in this paper. The same goes with Vedic sacrifice, which is, in addition, impure. The partisans of liberation by rationality approach understand these instruments of rational inquiry and debate to be the prescribed means towards liberating knowledge Parrott , p. Keith, Franklin Edgerton, J. Hauer, Mircea Eliade, S. Radhakrishnan K.
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Rao, G. Feuerstein, G. Koelman, A. Macdonell, S. Chennakesavan, and Ian Whicher. See Larson , pp. Shevchenko sufficient for even the dullest of seekers to find wisdom and spiritual perfection , p. Burley points out that liberation, which involves the cessation of mental activity, is inconsistent with the rational method involving active mental efforts.
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While it is possible that rational activity can play a part in the path towards liberation, at some stage a leap has to be made beyond the rational Burley , pp. BhG7 6. See Parrott , p. He admits that the SK does not contain an explicit proclamation of its salvific methodology.
The purposes of the methodologies are thus different and should not be equated Burley , p. Since the method of rational inquiry seems so obviously unfit for liberation from suffering, it is unlikely that any established and influential philosophical tradition would subscribe to it. The principle of charity dictates that if several interpretations of a certain view are possible, we should follow the most plausible one. Thus, if one can show that the text presents a meaningful and consistent account of the process of liberation, which does not involve rational inquiry, we should prefer that account to the liberation by rational inquiry approach.
The process of liberation occurs, when mental activities of the buddhi are gradually set free from the attribution of the self to them.
Reason is useful in bringing wisdom about […] Proof and wisdom both have the same content, i. Shevchenko that proof via reasoning gives birth to wisdom as a form of new information. Further, it is even the case that the mechanism of reason and wisdom are the same.
Both come about as judgments arising in buddhi in regard to the world as presented in the data of the senses and intra-psychic images. Reasoning does not open up new avenues of knowing the world. What reason does achieve is to bring about intellectual conviction in regard to the duality of Purusa and Prakrti. The difference between reasoned proof and liberating knowledge is a matter of perspective.
From the perspective of an ordinary and false view of the self as located in the intellect, the activity of this intellect takes the form of reasoned proof. It seems that Parrot admits that reasoning brings about liberating knowledge after all. At what stage of intellectual inquiry does the actual disassociation of the self take place? Or is it the repeated meditation on these doctrines that leads towards liberation? Chakravarti and S. See Burley , pp. It is not easy to find traditional texts, which use the two words interchangeably.
The word viveka is not mentioned at all. II, p. Ordinary people, on the other hand, need the help of a teacher or of religious texts. Thus, while Burley attempts to demonstrate that SK 64 refers to the meditative practice prescribed in the YS, other scholars including Oberhammer, Larson, and Parrott [Parrott , p. The mind one-pointedly focused on a repetition of the tattvas cannot really mean anything but a meditative activity.
All practice brings about a direct realization having the same object to which the practice pertains. Since [in the present case] the practice pertains to truth, it produces a direct realization pertaining to truth. In fact, there is still the danger that the practitioner may become satisfied with this stage, and stop his efforts to achieve final liberation, as suggests the author of the YD in his commentary on SK Although the development of dispassion is a precondition of the arising of knowledge YD , p.
Since the bondage is caused by the lack of knowledge SK 44 , only knowledge can bring about liberation.
If that which is contrary to dispassion—i. In the intellect, the sattva predominates over the other two qualities, and its increase is responsible for the arising of positive mental states. Either way, the verse makes it clear that attachment is possible even after the liberating knowledge arises, and the practice of dispassion continues until the kaivalya is permanently established.
See Raveh , p. These passages are often difficult to understand, and sometimes seem to be contradictory. Nevertheless, it is possible to construct a general picture of the yogic path in this text. The latter, however, may also be seen as a preliminary stage allowing the successful pursuit of liberation YD , p. The different components of yogic practice are organized in progressive stages, each of which makes room for a number of alternative practices.
Every stage is a precondition for moving to the next stage, but also results in certain benefits, with which the yogi may have become satisfied and, consequently, stop his spiritual practice.
It is the successful movement through all the stages that eventually culminates in final liberation, although a spontaneous arising of liberation is also possible. Thus the first stage—dharma—may include performance of Vedic rituals and social duties and lead to the enjoyment in the realm of brahma. The same stage may include, alternatively, yamas non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, non- wickedness, and sexual restraint 36 and niyamas the absence of anger, obedience to the teacher, cleanliness, eating less, and vigilance 37 which prepare the practitioner for the next stages YD , pp.
The fact is that out of seventy-two verses of the text, SK 23, 45, and 64 are the only verses that allude to the yogic practice. Pain has a self-contradictory nature that involves being felt and the desire to not be felt: a contradiction, which naturally leads to the emancipatory reflective process of distinguishing the self from bodily feelings.
Allow me to briefly summarize the spontaneous process of liberation from suffering presented by Bhattacharyya. Our reflection on our feeling of pain necessarily involves our wishing to be free from pain. If we wish to be free from pain, we think that freedom from pain may be achieved. This contradiction leads to a different kind of wish, which is the wish to be free from the reflection on pain Bhattacharyya , p. The second wish is the necessary wish for absolute freedom— not only from pain, but from the potentiality of pain Bhattacharyya , p. There is another contradiction involved in the secular reflection on pain.
In the secular wish to be free from pain, the feeling of pain appears as a puzzle. On the one hand, it is given to the reflective self as a kind of perceived object, distinct from the self. There is, thus, a contradiction in the way that the feeling appears to ordinary reflection as both one with myself and opposed to myself, something to be appropriated and rejected at the same time Bhattacharyya , pp.
The wish that pain would not be a part of the self makes the self opposed to itself —that is to say, the object of itself. The spiritual wish marks the beginning of the actual separation of the self from pain, because now pain is what is objectified, and as an object, it becomes separate from the self Bhattacharyya , p.
Liberation from real pain is an experience of bhoga, pleasure.
Liberation from the consciousness that causes pain is apavarga, ultimate liberation. Bhattacharyya identifies a continuity between the first kind of liberation and the second. At a certain stage, bhoga naturally turns into apavarga Bhattacharyya , pp.
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The wish to be free from pain is the first reflection on the bodily self, while pain is felt in the body identified with the self.